Fixed Dental Bridge

When the tooth or teeth are lost and not replaced, your teeth can drift from their proper position. This drifting can cause many undesirable consequences such as jaw pain and headaches from malocclusion (a bad bite alignment).

Drifting of teeth can make certain areas more susceptible to decay. Problems with the supporting structures of your teeth (gum and bone) can arise from the shifting of teeth as they try to fill a vacant area. In order to prevent the drifting of teeth, a fixed bridge may be recommended.

This will return your masticatory (chewing) system to a full complement of teeth. The teeth can then support each other and function beautifully together.

The teeth

(1) on either side of the space
(2) are prepared , as shown, to accept the bridge.  A laboratory then fabricates the bridge
(3) very precisely. At a subsequent visit, the bridge is cemented into place over the prepared teeth (4).

Bridges can be fabricated from a variety of materials including gold, other metals and porcelain.

Book Review: Essex County Volume 2: Ghost Stories By Jeff Lemire

In the second installment of the Essex County trilogy, Lemire has hit his stride. The storytelling is worlds beyond the first (Tales From The Farm), and the illustrations – which have the appearance of wood engravings – are as powerful as any number of masterpieces from ages past.

Compared to Tales, Stories is a darker, more honest portrayal of home life, with devastating perspective spewed forth as the main character (Lou Lebeuf) goes from hero to zero – or at least he becomes mortal.

There is passion, betrayal and regret (try “She only knew me through letters and phone calls those last years. I was so wrapped up in myself…in what I’d lost” on for size). While Lou holds a bottle for comfort, his equally lonely brother Vince holds his wife and daughter. And for the skeptics who think graphic novels are kids’ stuff, think again. If I’d not been reading this 223-page book in a waiting room, I wouldn’t have been able to hold back the tears.

How to download and use Google Instant Messenger?

Google’s standalone instant messenger, Google Talk, is light-weight and has everything that anyone really needs from the IM software. It even allows you to talk online for free. Here is a step-by-step tutorial on how to start using it to chat with friends.

1. Download the software

You will need to be running Windows XP or above. For free Google-compatible IM software for OSX, use iChat, or download Trillian-Messenger which is also compatible with a range of other IM services.
Visit and click on “Download Google Talk” on the right. Ignore the video chat plug-in software on the left as (used with Gmail chat, a browser-based web app).

2. Install Google Talk

When asked by your browser, you can either run or save the installation file to your computer . Run it if you can, otherwise save it to your desktop and run it after the download finishes.
Click “I Agree” to the license agreement and terms of service and wait for the files to extract and install. Click “Finish” to close Google Talk setup.

3. Sign in to Google Talk

The Google Talk client should start automatically. Enter your Google login details, usually your Gmail or Googlemail email address and password.
If you do not have login details, visit and register an account for free.

4. Understand the IM list

You should now see the chat list which shows some of your Gmail contacts and whether or not they are online. Everyone will not be available, or have the Google Talk software. If you cannot see a friend, you can search for them and they will appear if you have ever sent or received an email from them in your Gmail account.
You can invite friends to the service by clicking on the “+Add” in the bottom left corner of the contact list. Enter their email address, or addresses separated by a comma, or search for them in your contacts list.

5. Start text chatting

Click on one of your online contacts to bring up the IM window. Any smiley that you enter, automatically convert into emoticons.
You can apply some basic text formatting. To make your text bold, place it within two asterisks. To underline, use “_” instead and for strike-through, use hyphens.

6. Take advantage of the free voice calls

You can also start a voice call by right-clicking on the contact and selecting “Call”. This will initiate a free Voice-over-IP, or VoIP conversation, very much like Skype.
You and your friend will need microphones and speakers or headsets in order to make voice calls. You will not be charged to make the call as the technology works using internet-based technology rather than a telephone network.

7. Explore the other features and settings

Play around with the settings to customise Google Talk to your own requirements. Explore the other features such as file transfers and voice-mail.

How to create a Wifi antenna

So you have ADSL and a wireless network. You buy a USB wireless adaptor to give you access to your network on your PC upstairs. But alas! The reception is as poor as a pauper. Fret not; Chinese cookware will come to the rescue.

This guide will show you how to create a Wifi antenna capable of increasing your signal strength to a more than useable level.

Making your own Wifi dish relies on the very lucky coincidence that Chinese cookware like woks and steamers are almost parabolic. We are essentially making a parabolic reflector that focuses the radio frequencies from your wireless network onto a single focal point, just like a satellite dish.

What you need:

  • A wok
  • A USB wireless adaptor
  • A USB cable
  • Some thin threaded rod (very easy to find at friendly hardware shop)
  • A couple of nuts and washers
  • Something that will become a handle, like a thin plank of sorts

Step one: Go to your local Chinese supermarket and find a wok that looks like a satellite dish in disguise. Buy it.

Step two: The very important bit: find the dish’s focal point. The whole point of the parabolic reflector is to focus the signal to a point that can be picked up by your USB adaptor.

To find the focal point you can go do a course in physics at one of our fine institutions of learning; or you can line the inside of your wok with tinfoil, hold it up to the sun and put your finger where you think the focal point is. Move your finger around until it feels like a heat-ray has found it. This is the focal point. Measure how far this point is from the centre of the dish.

Step three: Drill a hole in the centre of the dish. Use a drill, not a hammer. A hammer is not a drill and turns healthy bones into shattered ones. Drill a hole through whatever it is you are using as a handle. Now bolt the whole lot together with the point of the threaded rod at the focal point.

A note: Once you have drilled a hole into the wok, it is no longer a wok. It is now a very inefficient strainer.

Step four: Tape your USB adaptor to the threaded rod and plug into your PC. Now hope that it works. If it doesn’t, fiddle with the length of the threaded rod until the signal is strong enough to use. Brilliant!