Garlic and Cancer Prevention

Garlic is the edible bulb from a plant in the lily family and classified as member of the Allium genus. A host of studies provide compelling evidence that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. These studies reveal that the benefits

of garlic are not limited to a specific species, to a particular tissue, or to a specific carcinogen. 0f 37 observational studies in humans using garlic and related allyl sulfur components, 28 studies showed some cancer preventive effect. The evidence is particularly strong for a link between garlic and prevention of prostate and stomach cancers. However, all of the available information comes from observational studies comparing cancer incidence in populations who consume or do not consume garlic (epidemiologic studies), animal models, or observations with cells in culture.

These findings have not yet been verified by clinical trials in humans.

Although health benefits of garlic are frequently reported, excessive intake can have harmful effects. Studies have reported symptoms including garlic odor on breath and skin, occasional allergic reactions, stomach disorders and diarrhea, decrease in serum protein and calcium levels, association with bronchial asthma, and contact dermatitis, and possible associations with production of sperm in males. Garlic preparations vary in concentration and in the number of active compounds they contain. Thus, quality control is an important consideration when foods such as garlic are considered for use as a cancer-fighting agent.

Several compounds are involved in garlic’s possible anticancer effects. Garlic contains allyl sulfur and other compounds that slow or prevent the growth of tumor cells. Allyl sulfur compounds, which occur naturally in garlic and onions, make cells vulnerable to the stress created by products of cell division. Because cancer cells divide very quickly, they generate more stressors than most normal cells. Thus, cancer cells are damaged by the presence of allyl sufur compounds to a much greater extent than normal cells.

The chemistry of garlic is complicated. As a result, the quality of garlic products depends on the manufacturing process. Peeling garlic and processing garlic into oil or powder can increase the number and variety of active compounds. Peeling garlic releases an enzyme called allinase and starts a series of chemical reactions that produce diallyl disulfide (DADS). DADS are also formed when raw garlic is cut or crushed. However, if garlic is cooked immediately after peeling, the allinase is inactivated and the cancer-fighting benefit of DADS is lost. Scientists recommend waiting 15 minutes between peeling and cooking garlic to allow the allinase reaction to occur.
Processing garlic into powder or garlic oil releases other cancer-fighting agents. The inconsistent results of garlic research may be due, at least in part, to problems standardizing all of the active compounds within garlic preparations. Some of the garlic compounds currently under investigation are: allin (responsible for the typical garlic odor), alline (odorless compound), ajoene (naturally occurring disulfide), diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DAT), S-allylcysteine (SAC), organosulfur compounds and allyl sulfur compounds.

A study conducted at the School of Chinese Medicine also shows that a crude extract of garlic induces a caspase -3 gene expression that leads to apoptosis (cell death) of human colon cancer cells.

Ginger – Not just a spice

Ginger is used worldwide as a cooking spice, condiment and herbal remedy. The Chinese have used ginger for at least 2500 years as a digestive aid and anti nausea remedy and to treat bleeding disorders and rheumatism. It was also used to treat baldness, toothache, snakebite, and respiratory conditions.In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), ginger is considered a pungent, dry, warming, yang herb to be used for ailments triggered by cold, damp weather. Ginger is used extensively in Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, to block excessive clotting, reduce cholesterol and fight arthritis. In Malaysia and Indonesia, ginger soup is given to new mothers for 30 days after their delivery to help warm them and to sweat out impurities. In Arabian medicine, ginger is considered an aphrodisiac.

Ginger’s medicinal components are derived from the rhizome or root of the plant Z. officinale. Its pungent properties also contribute to its pharmacologic activities. Ginger contains cardiotonic compounds known as gingerols, volatile oils, and other compounds, such as (6)-, (8)-, and (9,10)- shogaol, (6)- and (10)- dehydrogingerdione, (6)- and (10)-gingerdione, zingerone, and zingibain.

Some of the clinically established therapeutic uses of ginger are discussed below.

Post operative nausea and vomiting:

The effect of powdered ginger root was compared with metoclopramide (an anti-emetic agent often used prior to anesthesia) and placebo. In a clinical trial the incidence of prospective nausea and vomiting was measured in 120 women presenting for elective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery on a day stay basis. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in patients given metoclopramide and ginger (27% and 21%) and less than those who received placebo (41%). The requirement for postoperative anti emetics was lower in those patients receiving ginger. The requirements for postoperative analgesia, recovery time and time till discharge were the same in all groups. There was no difference, in the incidence of possible side effects such as sedation, abnormal movement, itch and visual disturbance between the three groups.

Zingiber officinale is an effective and promising prophylactic antiemetic, which may be especially useful for day case surgery.

Effects on platelet aggregation:

In 20 healthy young male volunteers, ginger supplementation (5 gms daily) significantly inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and epinephrine . In human volunteers who took a huge (10 gram) one-time dose of dried ginger, there was a marked inhibition of platelet aggregability. This translates into the utility of Ginger in preventing excess clot formation.

Motion sickness:

Ginger’s efficacy against motion sickness was tested in 80 healthy naval cadets who were unaccustomed to sailing in heavy seas. The cadets took either 1 g of powdered ginger rhizome or 1g of placebo while sailing in heavy seas and maintained scorecards noting their symptoms every hour for the next four hours. In the 48 sailors who reported symptoms of seasickness, ginger appeared to reduce the severity of sea sickness (measured as score 0-9) rather than reducing the number of subjects who reported symptoms.

Knee osteoarthritis:

A 6-week trial with 261 subjects which used 255 mg per day of a patented ginger extract, (EV. EXT 77) reported effectiveness similar in magnitude to that reported with NSAIDs. Apart from the above mentioned indications, ginger is also used in variety of conditions with varying success.

It is known to have cardiotonic, antilipemic, carminative, antiulcer, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory effects, antibacterial, antineoplastic and antioxidant properties. However the therapeutic effects of ginger in normal dietary doses are not known. Further studies and larger trials on the therapeutic uses of ginger are warranted.

8 iPhone Tips and Troubleshooting You Must Know

Most problems with the iPod Touch/iPhone can be solved quickly by following the tips and troubleshooting strategies below:

1) Restarting and Resetting iPhone/iPod Touch:
If something is not working right, restarting or resetting iPhone will likely solve the problem.

a) Restart iPhone/iPod Touch:

  • Press and hold the Sleep/Wake button until the red slider appears.
  • Slide your finger across the slider to turn off iPhone. To turn iPhone back on, press and hold the Sleep/Wake button until the Apple logo appears.

b) Reset iPhone/iPod Touch:

  • Press and hold the Sleep/Wake button and the Home button at the same time for at least ten seconds, until the Apple logo appears.

2) Screen is blank or shows a low-battery image:

  • iPod Touch/iPhone is low on power and needs to charge for up to ten minutes before you can use it.

3) iPod Touch/iPhone doesn’t appear in iTunes or you can’t sync iPod touch

  • The iPod Touch/iPhone battery might need to be recharged.
  • If that doesn’t work, disconnect other USB devices from your computer and connect the device to a different USB 2.0 port on your computer (not on your keyboard).
  • If that doesn’t work, restart and reset your device (see above).
  • If that doesn’t work, restart your computer and reconnect iPod Touch/iPhone to your computer.

4) iPod Touch/iPhone won’t turn on, or if the display freezes or doesn’t respond

  • If iPod Touch/iPhone won’t turn on it may need charging.
  • If the display freezes or doesn’t respond, press and hold the Home button for at least six seconds, until the application you were using quits.
  • If that doesn’t work restart the device (see above).
  • If that doesn’t work, reset iPod Touch/iPhone.
  • If the device continues to freeze or not respond after you reset it:
  • Reset iPod Touch/iPhone settings. From the Home screen choose Settings > General > Reset > Reset All Settings. All your preferences are reset, but your data and media are left untouched.
  • If that doesn’t work, erase all content on iPod touch. From the Home screen choose Settings > General > Reset > “Erase All Content and Settings.” All your preferences are reset, and all your data and media are removed from iPod touch.
  • If that doesn’t work, restore the iPod touch software (see below).

5) Updating and Restoring iPod touch Software

You can use iTunes to update or restore iPod Touch/iPhone software. You should always update iPod Touch/iPhone to use the latest software. You can also restore the software, which puts iPod touch back to its original state. If you update, the iPod touch software is updated but your settings and songs are not affected.
If you restore, all data is erased from the iPod Touch/iPhone and all settings are restored to their original state.

6) Update or restore iPod Touch/iPhone

  • Make sure you have an Internet connection and have installed the latest version of iTunes from
  • Connect iPod Touch/iPhone to your computer.
  • In iTunes, select iPod Touch/iPhone in the source list and tap > Summary tab.
  • Tap > “Check for Update”. iTunes tells you if there’s a newer version of the iPod Touch/iPhone software available.
  • Tap > Update to install the latest version of the software. Or tap > Restore to restore the iPod Touch/iPhone to its original settings and erase all data and media on the device. Follow the onscreen instructions to complete the restore process.

7) Can’t remember your passcode

  • You must restore the iPod touch software as described above.

8) Websites or Email Aren’t Available

  • Check the cell or Wi-Fi signal icon in the status bar at the top of the screen. If there are no bars, or if it says “No service,” try moving to a different location. If you’re indoors, try going outdoors or moving closer to a window.
  • Check to make sure you’re in an area with network coverage. Go to your carrier’s website to see network coverage areas.
  • If the cellular network is not available, connect to a Wi-Fi network if possible.
  • Turn iPhone/iPod Touch off and back on again. Press and hold the Sleep/Wake button on top of iPhone for a few seconds until a red slider appears, then drag the slider. Then press and hold the Sleep/Wake button until the Apple logo appears.

How to warm up correctly?

A warm-up is necessary no matter how warm the environment. All the benefits can be obtained by a warm-up routine that should include the following features in this order:

  • Gentle jogging, marching, skipping or similar rhythmical activity.

  • Exercises of a steady rhythmical nature involving other joints of the body, such as gentle knee bends, arm swings, sways, trunk rotation, step ball change. None of these should reach end of range of movement so muscles and joints are not overstretched. Incorporating arm movements at this stage will increase the effects of the warm-up.

  • Gentle stretches to the large muscle groups, holding each stretch for 10-15 seconds. An increase in flexibility through stretching may reduce the incidence of muscle and tendon injuries. You might want to stretch your quads, hamstrings, inside-thigh and calf muscles at this time.

  • Balance exercises, such as standing on one leg, then being able to control bending and straightening the supporting leg and rising on to demi-pointe.

How long a warm-up takes will depend on your age and fitness level. A young child would be exhausted if they had to jump around for more than a couple of minutes, but a teenage student might need to take 10-15 minutes to be fully warmed.

Interestingly, the fitter you are and the more often you train, the longer your warm-up needs to be to have the same effects.

The steps in the warm-up should be not overstretch you and should not include sudden changes in direction, complicated leaps or turns. Keep the steps simple and repetitive and leave the technical bits to the class when the body is warmed up and better able to cope with them. At the end of the warm-up you should feel warm, relaxed and ready for action. If not, you have either done too much, or not enough!


Cool-down at the end of class is also beneficial. After working hard in class, it allows the body to gradually wind down towards a resting state rather than suddenly stopping.

Your body will return to its pre-exercise state more quickly if you perform light exercise during the recovery period than just stop.

It should allow you to relax physically and mentally, and will help to prevent muscle soreness and injury.

8 Healthy reasons to Warm up before excercise

Whilst some injuries are unavoidable, many are the result of your body not being prepared for what you are asking it to do. There is an unwritten law among both elite athletes and casual exercisers that a warm-up before exercising is an important part of injury prevention. The body needs to be thoroughly warmed up before any set exercises take place if they are to be carried out as successfully and safely as possible.

A good warm-up is a group of exercises performed immediately before an activity that provides the body with a period of adjustment from rest to exercise. It is designed to improve performance and reduce the chance of injury by preparing the dancer mentally as well as physically.

A warm-up should have the following beneficial effects

  • To make the muscles more stretchy. This allows greater movement at the joints and reduces the risk of injury. Muscle elasticity depends on how much blood is running through it, so cold muscles with little blood in them are more likely to become injured or damaged. Think of muscle being like a blob of Blu-tack. When Blu-tack is cold you can stretch it so far and then it will snap. But when Blu-tack is warm you can stretch and stretch it and it feels gooey. So it is with your muscles – it is simply the warm blood rushing through the muscle that warms it up on the way past and makes the muscle fibres more elastic. It’s a bit like the hot water in the radiator heating up the whole of a room.

  • To make your breathing faster and deeper. This allows more oxygen to be breathed in and more carbon dioxide to be breathed out. If you have warmed up well you will feel less ‘out of breath’ in the exercise that follows than if you try it from ‘cold’.

  • To make your heart best faster and stronger. This delivers more oxygen and glucose to the muscles. Oxygen and glucose are used as fuel to make energy, and then the muscles use this energy to create movement.

  • To increase the internal body temperature. Capillaries in the skin will dilate (open up) and so you will look more pink, or even red. You will also start sweating as the intensity of the exercise increases. The reason you sweat is to lose heat so that your body does not become dangerously hot inside.

  • To allow your nerve fibres to work more efficiently. Messages carried down from the brain go to muscles, so these muscles will react faster and in a more coordinated way. Messages carried up to the brain tell it about what is happening in the muscles and joints. The brain can then react by telling the muscles to work in a certain way, and so many potential mistakes and injuries are avoided.

  • To allow time to focus.This means we can concentrate on the exercise to follow, and if you are less distracted then you are less likely to have an accident.

  • To increase the range of movement available at joints.This is due to an increase in the elasticity of the tendons, muscles, ligaments and other connective tissues. So, for example, you may find that your kicks are higher after a warm-up than before.

  • To redistribute blood to where it is needed. Blood is diverted away from some areas of the body (e.g. gut) and into other areas (e.g. muscles and skin). This happens suddenly when we have a sudden shock, such as nearly hitting a car when riding a bicycle, or nearly slipping over on icy ground. After these, our legs tend to shake and feel wobbly, and we often feel ‘sick’ in our stomach. But if these same changes happen more slowly (as in a warm-up) then this is not a problem.